2014年5月13日火曜日

サマンバイア:Samambaia Chorona [Polypodium persicifolium Desv.]とタマシダの育成

 条件がよければ3m以上、超ロングに垂れ下がるシダを35年前から育てています。原産地のブラジルでは一般にサマンバイアと呼ばれています。このSamambaia Chorona は、ポルトガル語で枝垂れシダという意味ですが Samambaia-de-metro とも呼ばれています。学名は Polypodium属(エゾデンダ属) persicifolium種 です。葉は平らでストレートに伸びる披針形の緑の葉で、しなやかに枝垂れる美しいシダです。約1ヶ月前に初めて50本ほど挿し根(ランナー)をしたところ、結構発芽しました。
 日本にはゴニオと呼ばれるウラボシ科の Goniophiobium属  や Goniophlebium属(タイワンウラボシ属) のシダがあるようです。
   先日、国内で斑入りの珍しいタマシダの苗を入手して育成を始めました。タマシダは一見ゴニオやサマンバイアに似た所もありますが、葉性はもとより、ランナーなど根茎の形状や、地中に玉を持つなど、かなり異なっています。
 育成の様子を記録します。又、参考文献を二編添付致します。(写真はクリックで拡大可


 
35年育てているサマンバイア:葉の長さ2.1m(秋までにもっと伸びる)


上の写真の葉

 
4月6日に約50本挿し根(ランナー)、芽が出た
 
 
ランナーを5cm程度に切断して横向きに置く
サランラップで覆っていたが、今日撤去した


2年前から苗(ブラジル・小清水さん)を育成、1.7mに伸びた
 
 
「斑入りタマシダ」(5月11日植え付け・6鉢)、2m以上を目指す
 
 
上の写真の葉

ロングタマシダとゴニオ
左からロングタマシダのハワイ原産2mもの、同マレー原産4mもの、
東南アジア原産のゴニオ(Goniophlebium  subauriculatum(Blume) C.Presl)
 
 
ブラジルのサマンバイアは3m以上になる
ボルタヘドンダの中村さん宅:1978年12月
 
 
サンパウロの佐々木さん宅:1978年12月4日


ゴニオ及びサマンバイアの分類、名称に関するメモ:
   Polypodium属(エゾデンダ属)(ブラジル産、前田のもの)
     Goniophiobium samambaia という表現を見たこともあるがこれか不明(特許申請で)。
   Goniophlebium  subauriculatum (東南アジア産)
   ロングタマシダ:ハワイの「シダの洞窟」のと同じもので柔らかいものは2メートル、硬いものは
     マレー産で4メートル程になるものがある。

サンパウロ市 松村滋樹氏のコメント:
前田さんのおっしゃる様に写真で見ると、Samambaia-de-metro (別名 Samambaia chorona)と Gonioは似ていますね。しかし、Samambaia-de-metroはブラジル原産です。
日本にあるGonioは熱帯アジアかオーストラリアの原産ではないでしょうか。

1)Samambaia-de-metro(メートル、別名 Samambaia chorona 泣きシダ)
学名:Polypodium persicifolium Desv. 
2)Gonio
学名:Goniophlebium subauriculatum(Blume) C.Presl

Tsukuba Botanical Garden 2008 Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Series B (Botany) の目次にはたくさんのシダ類が書いてあります。本文は読めません。


参考文献:

    サンパウロ市 松村滋樹氏提供

参考文献:その1 (私が35年前から育てているものと同じものと思われる。日本語訳責:前田

SAMAMBAIA CHORONA (Polypodium persicifolium)
  枝垂れサマンバイア(学名多根茎杏仁葉線=無理に訳した)

Publicado por: LUCIANO MENDE Categorias: Botânica



Veja como ter samambaias sempre verdes e bonitas em vasos e como cuidar, como podar, como adubar e como molhar. As samambaias não gostam de sol forte. O ideal é manter o vaso em local iluminado que pegue um pouco de sol de manhã. Essas plantas também são muito sensíveis ao vento, particularmente a samambaia-de-metro.
サマンバイアを鉢で常に緑で美しく保つための世話の方法、剪定方法、施肥の方法や保湿の方法をご覧ください。シダは、強い日差しを好みません。朝日が少し当たる場所に容器を置くことが理想です。又、これらの植物、特にサマンバイア・メートル(長いサマンバイア)は風に非常に敏感です。
前田註:タイトルで samambaia chorona、この項で samambaia de metro を使っている。後者は前者の中で葉が特に長い物を指すのか、同格に扱っているのかここでは不明だが、この文献の下部に「Outros nomes: samambaia de metro」とあるので、同格のようだ。


Regas = Fazer de duas a três vezes por semana, mas sempre no verão, as samambaias precisam mais água do que no inverno. Molhe o xaxim por igual, tomando cuidado para não encharcar, o que poderia causar apodrecimento da raiz. O segredo é nunca deixar o xaxim totalmente seco. As samambaias gostam de receber um chuvisco sobre as folhas.
給水=週に2〜3回ですが、サマンバイアは夏中は冬より多くの水を必要とします。根腐れの原因になる恐れがあるので浸み込ないように注意しながら均等に散水する。要点完全にシダを乾燥させないことですシダ葉面霧雨を散布するとよい

 
Podas = Quando aparecem folhas amarelas, faça uma poda, abrindo espaço para as brotações. As mudas que surgirem da extensão do rizoma (caule subterrâneo) devem ser retiradas, evitando-se que a planta cresça demais e tenha que ser transplantada para um vaso maior. A renda-portuguesa e a samambaia-de-metro queimam com o frio; portanto, recomenda-se podá-las inteiramente antes de o inverno chegar ou deixá-las em local mais quente durante a estação fria. Depois, elas brotam vigorosas.
剪定=黄色の葉が現れたら、新芽のための空間をつくるために剪定を行います。根茎(地下茎)の拡張によって苗が大きくなりすぎないように分割して、より大きなポットに移植しなければならなりません。サマンバイアは寒さで焼けるため、冬が来る前に完全にそれらを整理するか、寒い季節に暖かい場所に置いておくことをお勧めします。そうすると盛んに発芽します。



Adubação = Não deve ser realizada na época do plantio pois pode causar deficiências nas raízes. Um mês após a muda passar para o vaso definitivo, faz-se adubação leve com 2 colheres (sopa) de torta de mamona e farinha de osso, repetindo a cada 40 dias. A adubação líquida é feita de 15 em 15 dias.
施肥=根に欠陥を生ずる可能性があるので施肥は植栽後行うべきです容器に移植して1ヶ月後から40日間隔でトウゴマ粕(ヒマシ油粕)と骨粉をスープスプーン2杯分液体肥料15日間隔で与える


Pragas = É comum aparecerem lagartas que comem as folhas. Faça uma catação manual. Contra pulgões e ácaros, pulverize com calda de fumo para afastá-los. Se eles aparecerem na planta, corte as folhas afetadas tentando evitar que a doença se alastre. Para eliminar, só pulverizando com inseticida.
害虫=葉を食べる幼虫を見つけることが一般的です手で除去してくださいアブラムシダニに対しては、それらを追い払うためにスプレー煙でスプレーします。植物に現れた場合は、病気が広がるのを防ぐために、被害を受けた葉をカットしてください。除去するために殺虫剤を噴霧します。


Mudas = A maneira mais fácil de fazer uma muda de samambaia é com parte do rizoma. Em algumas espécies, ele é um filamento, como ocorre nas samambaias-americana, de metro e rabo-de-peixe; em outras, parece o rabo de um bicho peludo. É o caso da mandaiana e das rendas portuguesa e francesa. No primeiro tipo, o rizoma lança novas mudas periodicamente (na rabo-de-peixe é mais raro). Quando isso acontece, retire a muda cuidadosamente, cortando as folhas grandes na metade e tomando cuidado para não danificar os brotos. A seguir, plante-a em outro vaso. Quando os rizomas são do segundo tipo, formam um emaranhado compacto. Para fazer a muda, corta-se um pedaço, de preferência que esteja com broto, espetando-o em um vaso com substrato. Sempre no verão é a melhor época para retirar mudas. Fonte: globorural.globo.com

=サマンバイアを増殖する最も簡単な方法は、根茎の分割です。第一の方法は、根茎の挿し木の大きな葉を半分にカットし、芽を傷つけないように注意しながら慎重に分割した後、別の容器にそれを植える。第二の方法は、コンパクトなもつれを形成している場合で、分割するには、好ましくは、ある芽を1本カットする。苗を採取する時期は夏が最適です。出典:globorural.globo.com
(この項、重要部のみ訳)

 


Outros nomes: samambaia de metro, polipódio.
 別名:長いサマンバイア、多根茎

Características: herbácea rizomatosa, perene, de folhagem longa, pendente, com frondes inteiras, lanceoladas, verde brilhantes, com mais de 2 m de comprimento.
 特徴:地下茎草本、多年草、長さ2メートル以上に垂れ下がる披針形の緑の


Propagação: esporos e divisão de rizomas.

 繁殖胞子および根茎

Função: vasos, xaxim (condenável devido à extinção dessa planta), fibra de côco e jardineiras na decoração de interiores.
 用途:プランター、立ち性シダ(当植物の絶滅を宣告された):前田註・左の代用と言う意か
インテリアの装飾品としてのココナツ繊維やガーデニング材料

Cuidados: cultivada em terra vegetal a meia-sombra. Não gosta de frio. Requer irrigação frequente, porém com boa drenagem.

 管理:日陰で腐葉土で栽培寒さに弱い頻繁な水やりが必要ですが、良好な排水が必用

Fonte: Vivaterra
 出典:Vivaterra
 




参考文献:その2


Goniophlebium—Growing Goniophlebium Ferns

   By Jon VanZile



Goniophlebium.Flickr.C-S-M.jpg


I have the good fortune of living in a subtropical climate, which means I've had the great fortune of visiting greenhouses and collectors devoted exclusively to epiphytic ferns. Unlike their purely (or mostly) terrestrial cousins, epiphytic ferns grow mounted to various forms of substrate. They can be grown in lined baskets, on slabs of tree fern, or simply mounted on logs suspended in the air. The most common of these epiphytic ferns is the staghorn, which is a truly beautiful plant, but among some people, collecting and growing the rare epiphytes becomes like a fever. Less showy and accessible than orchids, and in some ways more temperamental and difficult, a well-grown epiphytic fern is a miracle of beauty and biology, falling in a cascade of verdant green. So with all that said, the Goniophlebium is one of these rare and exceedingly lovely epiphytic ferns. These large specimen plants have narrow pendant fronds that hang to the ground. Their difficulty level is advanced, and you'll likely need special conditions to make the plant thrive.

Growing Conditions
* Light: Goniophlebium like shade to dappled sunlight, but this is somewhat adaptable. Plants that receive adequate water can tolerate somewhat more sunlight, although they will never be considered bright light plants.
* Water: They require very high humidity and daily watering.
* Soil: They can be grown terrestrially, but do best when mounted to some kind of substrate.
* Fertilizer: Feed with a weak liquid fertilizer throughout the growing season.  

Propagation
These ferns grow by a creeping rhizome that clings to its support as the plant spreads, eventually forming a large colony of ferns. Propagation of a larger specimen is a simple matter of taking a piece of the plant, with the roots intact, and attaching to a new substrate. They can also be propagated from spores, although this is somewhat more difficult.

Repotting
Terrestrial specimens will rarely need repotting; over time, the soil in the container will become exhausted, but as long as the plant has adequate drainage and something to hold onto, it will continue to do fine in the container. Epiphytic species will never need to be repotted, but you might want to occasionally take pieces of the plant to propagate it and make it more manageable in size.

Varieties
There are about 20 species of Goniophlebium, although it depends on little on who you ask. The Plant List website reports 185 species names, of which only 11 are accepted. The vast majority of the rest are synonymous with species from other genus. In fact, this genus was recently segregated from the larger Polypodium genus, which accounts for some of the confusion. Whatever the case, the most popular plant is the G. subauriculatum, which has named cultivars and is a large species with narrow, overlapping and pendant fronds that look somewhat like massive Boston fern fronds.

Grower's Tips
The key to successfully growing Goniophlebium is to provide plenty of warmth, humidity and moisture. It's equally important that the moisture be consistent—even a short period of drought will potentially hurt the plant. They are also totally sensitive to cold, so cannot stand any drafts. Lastly, while fertilizer will improve the specimen, they are adapted to relatively lower levels of fertilizer, so use a careful hand. Ideally, these plants should be grown in a greenhouse or shadehouse where they can be watered daily or almost daily. Goniophlebium are vulnerable to pests including aphids, mealy bugs, scale, and white fly. If possible, identify the infestation as early as possible and treat with the least toxic option.
Suggested Reading * Maidenhair Ferns -- Growing Adiantum Ferns * Boston Ferns -- Growing Nephrolepis Ferns * Understanding Orchid Names—Reading Orchid Labels
Related Articles * Microsorum—Growing Microsorum Species Indoors * Drynaria—Growing Oak Leaf Ferns * Fern Growing Tips * Bird's Nest Ferns -- Growing Asplenium Nidus Ferns * Thelypteris—Growing Thelyp
Goniophlebium subauriculatum (Blume) C.Presl
Caterpillar Fern Record a sighting Alerts 
Name source Australian Plant Census
Rank
Species
Data links LSID JSON / WMS /RDF
Species presence
 Recorded In Australia * Overview * Gallery * Names * Classification * Records * Literature * Sequences

Occurrence records map
occurrence mapmap legendView records list Map & analyse records
* representative image of taxa



 
 
 
 
 
 


Description (原本から脱字になっています:前田

Rhizome chalky white. Scales ��deciduous, reddish brown, 2���6 mm long, 0.5���1.6 mm wide; base broad, rounded, tapering to a long narrow hair-like apex; margins with short fine rigid teeth. Fronds 10���120 cm long. Stipe 5���63 cm long, scaly at base; scales as for rhizome but usually longer, narrower. Lamina 1-pinnate, becoming pendulous. Pinnae very narrowly ovate to linear, c. 1���2.5 cm apart, articulated to rachis, 0.3���25 cm long, 0.25���2 cm wide, sessile; base truncate, cordate or very broadly cuneate, often slightly lobed on 1 or both sides, tapering to an acute apex; margins shallowly and bluntly dentate, thin, firm, clothed with soft pale hairs when young, glabrescent apart from small scattered scales on main rachis and on lower surface of costae. Veins usually forming 2 series of areoles between costa and margin; outer series mostly without free included veinlets. Sori solitary in each of the innermost areoles, not ringed by dark scale-like paraphyses; sporangia immersed in shallow depressions. Spores 32.5���52.5 ��m long, 17.5���25 ��m wide. source: ABRS Flora of Australia Online

Online resources

ABRS Flora of Australia Online
Description, Distribution, Habitat, Distribution Map Australian Plant Image Index
Images, Occurrence record Morphbank
Images, Occurrence record

467004 - Knight's polypody (Goniophlebium subauriculatum syn. Polypodium subauriculatum)

                      Photographer: Steffen Hauser


Goniophlebium subauriculata
 


An attractive and robust epiphytic fern that seems to have a liking for the leaf bases of palms. This is a rainforest fern but can often be seen in urban parks and on old trees.
In my opinion, one of the distinctive feature of the Goniophlebiums I know is the sori on the underside are deeply embedded in the leaflets and therefore appears as a strong bump on the upperside of the leaflets (more so than species of Nephrolepis).
 
 
G. subauriculatum is very similar to its close relative G. percussum, the only very perceivable difference being the shape of the leaflet base. G. subauriculatum has a somewhat auriculate (ear-like) leaflet base while that of G. percussum is rounded.
 
 
 
 
 




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5 件のコメント:

匿名 さんのコメント...

はじめまして。私はゴニオフレビウムを3種育てているのですが、ゴニオ以外にこんな素晴らしいシダがあるのですね。
美しいです。

eh さんのコメント...

はじめまして。
りっぱなサモンバイアを育ててらっしゃるんですね。
お住まいは日本ですか?

子どものころブラジルに暮らしていたので
うちにたくさんのサモンバイアを飾っていたので
懐かしく拝見しました。

父も母もサモンバイアが大好きなので
入手できないか園芸店などで聞いてみたのですが
「昔はそういう枝垂れのシダがあったけど、最近は見ない」といわれました。

日本でサモンバイアは入手できないのでしょうか?
ご存知でしたら教えていただけると嬉しいです。

前田久紀 さんのコメント...

ehさん
私は日本に住んでいます。
この種のサマンバイアを日本で他に見たことはありません。

バイアーノ さんのコメント...

前田さん

私は横浜に住んでいます。1970年代から80年代にかけて出張でブラジルに住んでおりました。最後に帰国時サマンバイアを持ち帰り、屋内で育てていましたが、不注意で3年前に枯らしてしまいました。
最盛期は天井まで通したポールに引っ掛けて2mのたらし迄あったのですが、無くなって大変残念に思っています。園芸コーナーに行くと必ず探していますが、未だサマンバイアに出会っておりません。
前田さんのところで栽培はしていらっしゃいませんか。

前田久紀 さんのコメント...

バイアーノさん
       前田です
maedah5xlive.jpのxを@に置き換えたものが
私のメルアドです。メールをください。